Citrine is one of two birthstones for November (the other November birthstone is topaz). It is the transparent yellow to brownish orange variety of quartz. Citrines range from light, lemon yellow to “Madeira,” a rich, orange color with red flashes. Today, most of the citrine in the marketplace results from the heat treatment of amethyst. With its ready availability in a broad range of sizes, citrine is one of the most affordable and desired yellow gemstones.
Mining actually yields very little citrine. The vast majority of citrine on the market is produced by heating smoky quartz (which produces light to medium yellows) and amethyst (which produces stronger yellows and orange-red to orangey brown shades). This is stable treatment. Natural stones usually occur in pale yellow colors, often with smoky tones.
Citrine has a hardness of 7 with good toughness and is durable enough for everyday wear and tear.